Even today,when the bestial rage of the conquering rabble can be seen in each of the acts taken to eternalize the conquest,and the Inca caste has long since vanished as a dominant power,their stone blocks stand enigmatically,impervious to the ravages of time.
Che Guevara-The Motorcycle Diaries.
”This country possessed from the times of Hindu Rajas many temples which were like the wonders of the world.Their workmanship was so fine and delicate that one found himself bewildered at their sight.Sikander goaded by feelings of bigotry destroyed them and leveled them with the earth and with their material built many mosques and khankahs.In the first instance he turned his attention towards the Martand temple built by Rama Deva on Mattan Karewa.For one full year he tried to demolish it but failed.At last in sheer dismay he dug out stones from its base and having stored enough wood in their place set fire to it.The gold gilt paintings on its walls were totally destroyed and the walls surrounding its premises were demolished.Its ruins even now strike wonder in men’s minds.At Bijbehara three hundered temples including the famous Vijeyshwara temple which was partially damaged by Shahab-ud-din were destroyed and with the material of the latter a mosque was built on its site a khankah which is even now known as Vijayeshwar mosque”
Pir Hassan Shah,Tarikh-i-Hassan
The period between 8th and 12th Century was a period of cultural renaissance in Kashmir.In a period spanning four hundred years Kashmir produced some of the greatest scholars, who were instrumental in shaping Indian thought and Philosophy.It was the time when the greatest spiritual masters of all times,Acharya Abhinavgupt consolidated the different schools of Kashmir Saivism, composed Abhinavbharti(his commentary of Bharata’s Natya Shastra) and gave us the Tantraloka to name a few of his huge literary corpus. It was in this period that Ananadvardhana gave us Dhvanyaloka thus opening up an entirely new aesthetic thought while Mahimbhatta,the cool logician giving us a different interpretation of aesthetics and Dhyani through his avante garde classic the Vyaktiviveka.Kalhana was the first Indian to write history.Till today Kalhana’s Rajtarangni remains the eternal guiding light post for any explorer of Kashmir’s rich past.Bilhana’s Chaurpanchasika till date remains one of the best written love poems composed in any language.Sarangdev’s composition of Sangitratnakara remains a landmark in the history of Indian Music.Kashmiri architecture had finally invented its own idiom when we erected the famous Martand Sun Temple and enormous town of Parihaspura.It was a time when Kashmiri Painters were making their mark not just in Kashmir but in lands as far as South East Asia.According to Susan Huntington,”Kashmir served as a source of imagery and influence for the Northern and Eastern movements of Buddhist Art”.The various schools of Philosophy were flourishing at the house of Sharda.Kashmir was a melting pot of Panchratra,Tantra and Vajrayana Buddhism.
This is not to say that everything was hunky dory. There were palace intrigues and political upheavals. Despite the changing political equations most kings patronized arts, science, painting and architecture. There however were kings who were exceptions to the rule. They destroyed great pieces of art and architecture, razed to ground huge structures, vandalised paintings and burnt libraries thus halting the great thought of Kashmir.In their despicable acts they also subjugated the populace and thereby forced Kashmir back to stone ages.
Pre-Islamic Iconoclasm-References from Rajatarangani
Jalauka:This King finds mention in Taranga 1,verses 108-152.,Vol 1,page 26.Aurel Stein’s translation.
He destroyed one Vihara and the reason for the same as mentioned in Rajatatarangni is that he was disturbed while sleeping because of the music emanating from the said Vihara. This can be easily understood the following (Tarnaga 1,140-144) page 26 Book 1,Volume 1, Aurel Stein’s Translation:
“When you had lately been kept from sleep by the noise of the music of the Vihara,you had at the instigation of wicked persons caused in your anger the destruction of the Vihara.The excited Bauddhas thought of me and sent me forth to kill you.But then the Boddhisattvas called me and gave me the following directions:’That great king is a Sakya(Mahasakya).You cannot hurt him;but in his presence,O good one,you will obtain liberation from darkness(sin).In our name you shall exhort him who has been led into guilt by wicked people,to give up his hoarded gold and to build a Vihara.If he does so,no misfortune shall befall him in consequence of the destruction of the Vihara,and atonement shall thus be made for him and his instigators.”
The king repents for the sin he committed in a fit of anger and later builds the Vihara and names it after the divine sorceress.The same can be easily verified by the following Taranga 1,147,page 26,Vol 1 of Aurel Stein’s translation
“Thereupon the king built the Krtyasarama Vihara,and worshipped there the divine sorceress who had been freed from darkness”
Nara:This king finds mention in Taranaga 1,verses 197-275,Vol 1,page 34-41 of Aurel Stein’s translation.
While Stein mentions the woman in question as the king’s wife R.S.Pandit mentions her as king’s lover.Whichever be the case the Buddhist monk does seduce the king’s wife through magical powers.
Enraged by this the king does destroy thousands of Viharas.The reason for destruction of Viharas is clear and needs no explanation.
Ksemagupta:This king finds mention in Taranga 6,verses 150 to187,page 247 to 250,Vol 1,Aurel Stein’s translation.
Ref:171-173 verses,Taranga 6,page 248,Vol1,Stein’s translation.
“In order to kill the Damara Samgrama,who when attacked by the assassins,had enetered the famous Jayendravihara,he(Ksemagupta) had the latter burnt down without mercy.Taking from this Vihara,which was entirely burned down,the brass of the image of Sugata(Buddha), and collecting a mass of stones from decaying temples,he erected the (temple of Siva) Ksemagaurisvara in a market street of the city,thinking foolishly that the foundation of the shrine would perpetuate his fame”
RS Pandit in his translation of the above writes that Ksemagupta used material from the Vihara to erect a new temple.The argument that he used material from the Vihara to build the temple is fallacious because Stein’s translation itself is clear when it reads”and collecting a mass of stones from decaying temples”Even the Sanskrit verse reads”Devagrah” which means temple.Kalhana uses the word “Chaityas or Viharas” to describe Buddhist places of worship, although a Chaitya is the place of worship while a Vihara is a monastry in which Chaityas were generally situated.
Harsha-The First “Muslim” Iconoclast: Harsha (1089-1111) ruled Kashmir and is probably one king who Kalhana has painted rather despicably. A l
This king finds mention in Taranga 7 and Kalahana has written extensively on this king.Ref Taranga 7,verses 829 to 1732.page 333 to 402 of Volume 1,Aurel Stein’s translation.
We refer to what Kalhana writes about this wretched king.We will also see the impact of the epithet “Turuska” which has baffled historians.
There can be no difference of opinion as far as his title of Iconoclast goes.
Let us try and understand the reasons for his Iconoclasm based on Kalhanas description.This is what Aurel Stein writes in “Harsha’s temple de-spoliation”
Ref Introduction Chap 5,sec 5,page 113,Volume 1 of Aurel Stein’s translation.
“Extravagant expenditure on the troops and senseless indulgence in costly pleasures involved Harsa in grave financial troubles.From these he endeavoured to free himself by ruthless spoliation of sacred shrines.Kalhana relates with some humour how the incidental discovery of the treasures hoarded at the temple of King Bhima Sahi had turned the king’s attention to this method of replenishing his ex-chequer.After the temple treasuries had been ransacked,Harsa proceeded to the still more revolutionary measure of confiscating divine images in order to possess himself of the valuable metal of which they were made.Kalhana records the strange fact that as a preliminary step the sacred images were systematically defiled through outcast mendicants.As Kalhana is particular to specify the few metal statues of gods throughout Kashmir which escaped Harsha’s clutches,we cannot doubt the extent of Harsha’s iconoclasm.Can the latter have been instigated or encouraged somehow by the steady advance of Muhammadanism in the neighbouring terrorities?Kalahana,when relating these shameful confiscations,gives to Harsha the epithet”Turuska”,ie Muhammadean,and later on makes a reference to Turuska captains being employed in his army and enjoying his favour.”
From the above it almost seems clear that Harsa was greatly influenced by Muhammedeans and is likely to have committed these acts of Iconoclasm under their influence if not at their behest.From the way he went on to destroy and defile almost all icons, without bias either in favour of Hindus or Buddhists draws a parallel to Muslim rulers who did the same.Harsa made no difference when it came to defiling Buddhist and Hindu images makes us believe that he was purely an iconoclast and the philosophy of Iconoclasm where every image deserves to be destroyed is a concept rooted in one Semitic religion alone.
Let us also look at the word Turuska and its connotations with regard to Kalhana’s Rajatarngni.In all there are 19 references to the word Turuska in Rajatarangni.There is one reference to Yavan in Rajatarangni.There are 14 references to the word Mlecchas in Rajatarngni.
Words like Yavan,Turuska and Mleccha were used interchangeably to describe foreigners/outsiders/Muslims by Kalhana.That Kalhana uses the word “Turuska” to describe kings like Husha,Jushka and Kanishka cannot be refuted.We however need to study the word “Turuska” in the context of how Kalhana uses it for Harsa.We also need to see how Stein understands this word.For the benefit of the readers I give below all the references to the word in Rajatarangni.
Refer:Index Vol 2 page no 546 of Aurel Stein’s translation.
Turks,their habits iv .179;kings Huska,Juska,Kanishka called Turuskas I,170,viii 3412;enemies of Lalliya Sahi v 152;soldiers of Hammira(Mahumud), vii 51,56,70,118;sell slave girls,520;mercenaries supported by Harsa,1149;Harsa fears attack from Turuskas,1159;Muhammadean allies of Bhiksacrara,viii 885,886,919,923;northern allies of Dards,2843;invaders of the Punjab,3346;artist from Turuska Country vii.528;Harsa called Turuska i.e.Muhammadean,1095.
We need to look at the Turuska reference with regard to Harsa to understand whether it was “Mohammadean” that Kalhana meant by Turushka.As far as Stein is concerned he seems to be in no doubt whatsoever.This can be safely understood by the last of the references given above and given again for easy reference.( Harsa called Turuska i.e.Muhammadean,1095,vii).
As for other references except for one where Kalhana uses Turuska to describe Huska,Juska and Kanishaka all other references clearly point out that Kalhana uses Turuska as a synonym of Mohammedean..
Still let us look at some specific references
Invaders of Panjab,viii,3346,page 261,Vol 2,Aurel Stein’s translation……Prince Sangiya,the younger brother of Kamaliya,consecrated (a linga) under his own name.He was born from a race of Ksattriyas,who owing to their native place being within the territory of the Turuskas had learned nothing but cruelty……
Here Stein in his footnote writes..K refers to the condition of the Panjab after the Muhammadean conquest.
Soldiers of Hammira(Mahmud),vii 51,56,70,118, Vol 1,pages 270-276,Aurel Stein’s translation
These verses make for an interesting reading because they describe the Muhhamdean conflict with the Hindu-Shahi dynasty.In this rather detailed footnotes of the verses 47-69 Stein writes”There is no doubt that Kalhana’s narrative ,vii 47-69,relates to one of the campaigns which Mahmud of Ghazna directed against Trilochanpala and his allies.The identity of our account with Mahmud has been recognized by REINAUD,lc.Already before him Thomas(J.R.A.S,ix p.190sq)had shown the derivation of this term from the Arabic tittle Amiru-l-mumenin,and its application on coins and elsewhere to Ghaznavid Sultan.Reinaud has also rightly pointed out that the expression Turuska used for Trilochanpala’s opponents ,vii 51,56, is particularly appropriate for Mahmud’s army,which chiefly consisted of soldiers of Turkish origin.”
Documentary evidence heavily supports the fact that Harsa was greatly under the influence of his employed Muslim commanders.From the available references it can also be safely understood that in the context of Harsha Kalhana uses the word Turuska to refer to Muslims alone.
From the above one can conclude that though Harsa’s iconoclasm had its origins in greed and later in enjoyment of heresy and corruption resulting from power the effect of his Muslim friends can simply not be ruled out.In my opinion he was the first of the kings who started the process which was to be later followed by other”Turuska” kings.
As is said “Coming events cast their shadows before’The catastrophe that was to hit Kashmiris later had its shadow in Harsha”the turuska”.
While the old Hindu buildings defy time and weather, the Musalman shrines and mosques crumbled away. Other foreign travelers have recorded that Hindu temples were built to endure for all time. Their solidity of construction and their gigantic size strike one with wonder that puny man could have built them. They often gazed upon them with amazement and lamented bigoted Muslim fanatics who laid them to ruins with tremendous efforts.
Sir Walter Lawrence-The Vale of Kashmir
Three times the cupola of proud Santo Domingo has collapsed from on high to the rhythm of broken bones a
Unlike other Islamic invasions like that of Iran, Kashmir did not have armies of Arabs or Turks marching into Kashmir. Zulchu entered Kashmir in the early spring of 1323 A D to raid it and not to rule it. This is evident from the fact that when his armies marched back (with women and children as slaves) they were caught in a snowstorm, which killed all of them. The conversion of Rinchan Lama (who defeated Suhdev’s general Rama Chand by treachery) to Islam was a turning point in the history of Kashmir. There are various theories on how Rinchan (1324-26 AD) converted to Islam but the most plausible one seems to be that Bulbul Shah (a zealot of the Shah Ne’matullah Wali sect) converted him to Islam. Thus Rinchan was the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir, apart from being a foreigner.We must not fail to mention the role of Shams-ud-din (Shah-Mir 1341-45 D) who visited Kashmir as a dervish, killed associates of Kota Rani (wife of Rinchan) and usurped the crown later. Thus began Kashmir’s real ordeal of subjugation,conversion, religious persecution and its march to dark ages.
There are umpteen sources of history for period of Muslim rule primarily being the court historians like Jonaraja, Srivara, Shuka and Prajabhatta.We also have extant sources like the Baharistan-i-Shahi and Shams Din Araki’s Tohfatul-Ahabab. Wherever need be we will refer to sources like Tarikh-i-Kashmir by Hassan and Tarikh-i-Kashmir by Fauq.We will draw from secondary sources like Sir Walter Lawrence, Sir Aurel Stein and Pt.Jia Lal Kilam and many others to substantiate and corroborate our sources and their authenticity.
ICONOCLASM-THE MUSLIM KINGS Rinchana:Ref p 34,Jonaraja’s Rajataran
“Sultan Shihabu'd-Din addressed himself to such works as would help him get peace in the world hereafter. He arranged a tomb and a burial place for himself to be used after his death. Towards the fag end of his life, he was infused with a zeal for demolishing idol-houses and destroying the temples and idols of the infidels. He destroyed the massive temple at Beejeh Belareh  (Bijbehara). He had designs to destroy all the temples and put an end to the entire community of the infidels. “
We are still not in the time of Syed Ali Hamdani and we begin to see religious zeal to end infidels.Jonaraja has recorded that the king wanted to the destruction of all Hindukas and Mlecchas.
“Again it needs to be recorded that for some of the time which the holy Amir spent in Kashmir he lived in a sarai at 'Alau'd-Din Pora. At the site where his khanqah was built, there existed a small temple which was demolished and converted into an estrade on which he offered namaz (prayer) five times a day and recited portions of the Qur'an morning and evening. Sultan Qutbu'd-Din occasionally attended these congregational prayers.”
The demolished temple is the temple of Kalisree which to this day is revered by the Pandits of Kahmir.The pandits still pay their obeisance at one of the walls to the eternal Kali-the destroyer of Time.
The “Holy Amir” is no one but Syed Ali Hamdani who had come to Kashmir as a refugee because Timur that persecuted the Baihaqi Syeds.It was he who forced Qutub-din to stop wearing Hindu dresses or attending their festivals or following the customs of the land.Despite regular warnings to Qutub-din to follow Sharia in letter and spirit Qutub-din could not adhere to what the fugitive Syed wanted.This was because the subjects still were largely Hindu and it would have difficult for the king to go against the wishes of his people. Unhappy with this Ali Hamdani left Kashmir but not without issuing the following which is recorded in his book Zakhiratul-Mulook Chapter 5.
1) The Hindus will not construct any new temples under the rule of Muslims.
2) They will not repair old temples fallen into ruins.
3) They will respect Muslims.
4) They will not dress like Muslims.
5) They will not ride a horse with saddle & bridle
6) They will not put on a ring.
7) They will not carry swords or bows & arrows.
8) They will not adopt Muslim names
9) They will not harbour spies or act as spies
10) If any relation of their’s wants to embrace Islam, they will not oppose it.
11) If a Muslim comes to attend a Hindu meeting he will be respectfully received.
12) They will receive Muslim travelers into their houses & provide them hospitality.
13) They will not prevent Muslim travelers from staying in their temples & shrines.
14) They will not mourn their dead loudly.
15) They will not buy Muslim slaves.
16) They will not build houses in neighbourhood of Muslims.
17) They will not sell intoxicating drinks.
18) They will not carry their dead near the grave-yards of Muslims.
19) They will not openly practice their customs & usages among Muslims.
20) They will not give up their traditional dress so that they can be distinguished from Muslims.
In the end the fiat in the form of an advice dictated if any Hindu dares to flout any of conditions, he should be first looted and then possession of his body is halal.
Sultan Sikander Butshikan(1389-93):
“ [It may be recorded] that the temples of idol-worshippers, which had been destroyed and razed to the ground by the religious-minded and justice-loving Sultan Sikandar- God bless his grave and bless him-had been rebuilt and rehabilitated by Zainu'l 'Abidin. He had permitted idolators and polytheists to revive the practices of infidelity and they had propagated heresy (kufr) and false religion (din-i batil)”.
Ref Jonaraja’s Rajatarangni p 60
There was no city,no town,no wood,where Suha Bhatt *,The Turushka(Muslim),left the temples of gods unbroken,the images which once existed,the name alone was left.
*(Sikander’s Prime Minister)
Other Sources for Sikander Butshikan
This is what historians have to say.
"He [Sikandar] prohibited all types of frugal games. Nobody dared to commit acts which were prohibited by the Sharia. The Sultăn was constantly busy in annihilating the infidels and destroyed most of the temples..." (Haidar Malik Chădurăh: Tărîkh-i-Kashmîr; edited and translated into English by Razia Bano, Delhi, 1991, p. 55.)
"[He] strove to destroy the idols and temples of the infidels. He got demolished the famous temple of Mahădeva at Bahrăre. The temple was dug out of its foundation and the hole (that remained) reached the water table. Another temple at Jagdar was also demolished… Răjă Alamădat had got a big temple constructed at Sinpur. (...) The temple was destroyed [by Sikandar]." (Khwăjah Nizămu’d- Dîn Ahmad bin Muhammad Muqîm al-Harbî: Tabqăt-i-Akbarî translated by B. De, Calcutta, 1973)
"Sikander burnt all books the same way as fire burns hay". "All the scintillating works faced destruction in the same manner that lotus flowers face with the onset of frosty winter." (Srivara, Zaina Ra-jtarangini). This I am giving more for its poetic value rather than what it says.
The famous temples,which were either completely destroyed or ruthlessly damaged beyond repair,were those of Martand,Cakradhara,Tripureshwara and Sureshvara and two at Avantipur and Paraspor(p 123-4, R K Parmu-History of Muslim Rule in Kashmir)
Qutb-ud-din was succeeded by his son Sikandar who established the Musalman faith and destroyed all the idol temples(p 432,Tarikh-i-Rashidi(E&R)
Sikander was a rigid follower of the religious tradition and a bigot,and he overthrew idolatrous shrines and persecuted people not of his faith(p349,Ain-e-Akbari-Abul Fazul,trl by Jarrett)
However the greatest act of Iconoclasm was the drowning of all books in the Dal Lake which is recorded by Srivara(JC Dutt) p 145 as under
Then all the available literature on Hindu religion and culture was collected and sunk in the Dal Lake and the extant causeway,known as Sad-i-Ishbari was built upon this material.
It is losses such as these that we rue even today. One wonders what repository of knowledge these books must have been.
Iskandarpora was laid out on the debris of the destroyed temples of Hindus. In the neighbourhood of the royal palace in Iskandarpora, the Sultan destroyed the temple of Maha Shri, which had been built by Pravarasena and another one built by Tarapida. The material from these was used for constructing a Jami’ mosque in the middle of the city.
The Sultan ordered all Brahmans and learned Hindus should become Muslaman,and those who did not accept Islam should leave the valley,the qasha(holy mark)was not to be put on the forehead and the idols of gold and silver to be melted in the royal mint and the metal used for currency.The Tarikh-i-Firishta records the same.It further says, many Brahmans who could not either accept Islam or leave the country,committed suicide,others left their homeland and went to foreign countries.
Most of the Hindus fled the valley of Kashmir in order to protect their religion, women and children. This was the first forced migration of Hindus from Kashmir. Thus the first steps of pan-Islamization or conversion of Dar-ul-Harb to Dar-ul-Islam were taken and a strong base was laid for the foreign invaders-cum-rulers to follow.
Butshikan’s son, Sultan Ali Shah (1413-20) was no less a persecutor than his father. Jonaraja records that that discriminatory policies and heavy taxation forced Brahmanas to kill themselves either by poison, or rope, by drowning, by throwing themselves down the precipice while others burnt themselves.
During the twenty four years of Butshikan’s ruthless rule the pandit population had reduced to eleven families.
I am not recording the names and details of temples that Sikander destroyed because then it would become a book by itself.
Srivara’s Zaina Rajatarangni
They were persecuted,their temples and idols were desecrated and their lands were confiscated.Hard pressed by social injustice and official repression many Hindus renounced their faith and those who managed to save their caste adopted Muslim style of dress.
With the support of some more kings, the infidels had flourished day after day. But with the support and authority of Malik Musa Raina, Amir Shamsu'd-Din Muhammad undertook a wholesale destruction of all those idol-houses  as well as the total ruination of the very foundation of infidelity and disbelief. On the site of every idol-house he destroyed, he ordered the construction of a mosque for offering prayers after the Islamic manner.”
The idolatory and heresy which had existed prior to his coming to this place were effectively replaced by his preaching and propagation of Islamic laws and practices. He brought honour to all the infidels and heretics (zandiqa) of Kashmir by admitting them to the Islamic faith and bestowed upon them many kinds of rewards and benefactions. It is publicly known as well as emphatically related that during his life-time, with the virtuous efforts and elaborate arrangements made by the fortunate Malik Musa Raina, twenty-four thousand families of staunch infidels and stubborn heretics were ennobled by being converted to the Islamic faith.  It is difficult to compute the number of people who had hitherto indulged in corrupt practices of a wrong (false) faith and dissent and were put on the right track under the proper guidance of Mir Shamsu'd-Din 'Iraqi .
In fact the transmitter of (God's) grace (Mir Shams 'Iraqi) conferred favours upon the righteous Malik Musa Raina and gave him blessings which enabled him to fulfill that cherished task. Indeed, fortunate is one who has been able to become the recipient of such special consideration at the hands of a highly venerable and elderly person like him (Amir Shamsu'd-Din). After Sultan Sikandar-God's peace be upon him-no one among the Muslims who wielded authority over this country rendered as much service to Islam by its propagation and advancement as Malik Musa Raina did. Nobody was able to make as organized an effort as he did towards the advancement and furtherence of the Muhammadan religion.”
Musa Raina was greatly influenced by the god-man Shams-ud-din-Iraqi.It was Iraqi who poisoned Musa Raina to start a crusade against the Hindus(who had returned under the benign rule of Sultan Zainul-abidin or Budshah as he is popularly called).Shuka-the contemporary chronicler records that “Meera Shams became Musa Chandra’s guru without giving him religious instructions.According to his advise Musa Chandra arrested men belonging to temples and confiscated lands of Brahmanas”
It is also pertinent to note here that it was because of Shams-din-Iraqi that dance, music, making of wine and celebration of so many festivities came to an abrupt end. This is how the Taliban of present day had already taken shape then.Tohfat-ul-Ahbab records “He baton charged the dancing amd singing women,the musicians and the drumbeaters till they ran away.Wine and liquor assemblies had been set up around and he closed them down.Pitchers of wine were broken and in this way the black customs of the infidels were put an end to.All this was done on the day of the Spring Festival.The festivities were taking place at the foothills of the Hari Parbat.On the following day he ascended the heights of Koh-i-Maran(Hari Parbat).Together all of them destroyed even the minutest remains of the idol house and scattered even the bits of the idols.”
Tohfatul Ahbab further records that the he destroyed the following temples
1.A temple at the foothills of Hari Parbat.At its place lies the present day Ziarat of Makhdoom Sahib.
2.Chamakundi Temple.A mosque exists at its place today
3.Mahasen Temple,Zadibal.A mosque exists there till date.
4.Wablaru Temple at Varhamulla,present day Barramulla.
5.Nandaraja Temple at Kamraj.
6.Bomair temples at Bomair.
He also destroyed the famous temples and idol houses of Kamraj,which included those of Uttarasher,Badakot,Kubisher,and Koshi temple in the locality of Kandi,Kupwara and Drang.In all these areas including Barramulla and Sopor he brought down all these temples and built mosques.Tohafat-ul-Ahbab records that temples of Jatti Renu,Kandi Renu,Bacchi Renu in Kamaraj and some temple which I am unable to place is was also razed and destroyed.
"At the behest of Shams Iraqi, Musa Raina had ordered 1500 to 2000 infidels to be brought to his door-steps every day by his followers. They would remove their sacred threads, administer Kalima to them, circumcise them and thrust lumps of beef into their mouths,'' mentions Tohfatul Ahbab.
In the reign of Muhamad Shah(1516-28) some eight hundred Hindu leaders were gruesomely murdered and thus records Shuka;the fear of death compelled their followers to walk into Muslim fold like dumb driven cattle.
Kashmir also experienced the effects of these prohibitions.For instance Shahjehan ordered that temples in Anantnag and other places should be demolished(Lahori,Badshahnama,Vol 1,p 402).
The polished stones of these temples, Bernier tells us, were carried to the Shalimar and other gardens for the construction of the pavilions.I t was in his regime that Anantnag’s name was changed to Islamabad.What bi-polar personality could such a man be;the one who built a supposed monument of love and yet broke monuments built by other kings.
Even a cursory glance at the way the kings viewed their acts would give us an insight into the mindset be
Nobody was able to make as organized an effort as he did towards the advancement and furtherence of the Muhammadan religion.